[262], There is a preference for organic products and home farming compared to synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. The Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Kerala as Celobotra. The economy of Kerala is the 10th-largest in India with ₹7.82 trillion (US$110 billion) in gross state domestic product (GSDP) and a per capita GSDP of ₹204,000 (US$2,900). [524] Kerala has only performed well recently in the Ranji Trophy cricket competition, in 2017–18 reaching the quarterfinals for the first time in history. Tulu and Kannada are spoken mainly in Kasargod district. Welcome in all languages. [473] Melam; including the paandi and panchari variants, is a more percussive style of music:[474] it is performed at Kshetram-centered festivals using the chenda. Kollam Airport, established under the Madras Presidency, but since closed, was the first airport in Kerala. [371], Hinduism is the most widely professed faith in Kerala, with significant Muslim and Christian minorities. [316], Kerala's sex ratio of 1.084 (females to males) is higher than that of the rest of India and is the only state where women outnumber men. Even then there are 170 newspapers, 235 weeklies and more than 550 monthly periodicals published in Malayalam. [105][106][107] In the 18th Century, Travancore King Sree Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma annexed all the kingdoms up to Cochin through military conquests, resulting in the rise of Travancore to pre-eminence in Kerala. [337] By 1999–2000, the rural and urban poverty rates dropped to 10.0% and 9.6% respectively. [74][75] Mappila was an honorific title that had been assigned to respected visitors from abroad; Israelite (Jewish), Syrian Christian, and Muslim immigration account for later names of the respective communities: Juda Mappilas, Nasrani Mappilas and Muslim Mappilas. [164] Mean annual temperatures range from 25.0–27.5 °C in the coastal lowlands to 20.0–22.5 °C in the eastern highlands. In addition, Portuguese invasions in the 15th century caused two major religions, Buddhism and Jainism, to disappear from the land. [152], With around 120–140 rainy days per year,[153]:80 Kerala has a wet and maritime tropical climate influenced by the seasonal heavy rains of the southwest summer monsoon and northeast winter monsoon. [76][77] The earliest Saint Thomas Christian Churches,[78] Cheraman Jumu'ah Masjid (traditionally dated to "629 CE" by the Mappilas)—regarded as "the first mosque of India"[79]—and Paradesi Synagogue (1568 CE)—the oldest active synagogue in the Commonwealth of Nations[80]—were built in Kerala. [23] This contradicts the theory that kera is from 'coconut tree'. [517] A sizeable People's science movement has taken root in the state, and such activities as writer's cooperatives are becoming increasingly common. See Sahyadri Kanda Chapter 7 in Skanda Purana. 458–56. [32][33] According to the 17th century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu (hence, Kerala is also called Parasurama Kshetram 'The Land of Parasurama'[34]). [36], Another much earlier Puranic character associated with Kerala is Mahabali, an Asura and a prototypical just king, who ruled the earth from Kerala. [290] Thiruvananthapuram Central (TVC) is the busiest railway station in the state. Weil, Shalva. [141] The Western Ghats mountain chain is recognised as one of the world's eight "hottest hotspots" of biological diversity and is listed among UNESCO World Heritage Sites. [42] Pre-historical archaeological findings include dolmens of the Neolithic era in the Marayur area of the Idukki district. The state's only drive-in beach, Muzhappilangad in Kannur, which stretches across five kilometres of sand, was chosen by the BBC as one of the top six drive-in beaches[556] in the world in 2016. [522][533] Volleyball is another popular sport and is often played on makeshift courts on sandy beaches along the coast. in M.Avrum Erlich (ed. [278] The Kerala State Transport Project (KSTP), which includes the GIS-based Road Information and Management Project (RIMS), is responsible for maintaining and expanding the state highways in Kerala. [488][489][490] In the second half of the 20th century, Jnanpith winning poets and writers like G. Sankara Kurup, S. K. Pottekkatt, Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, M. T. Vasudevan Nair and O. N. V. Kurup had made valuable contributions to the modern Malayalam literature.

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