The chapter discusses the role of annotations to texts and the interpretability of core AI representations. Dupagne, Michel Abebe, Rediet This chapter first focuses on artificial emotions, and then moves on to machine consciousness, reflecting the fact that emotions and consciousness have been treated independently and by different communities in artificial intelligence (AI). Artificial intelligence, or AI, is a cross-disciplinary approach to understanding, modeling, and creating intelligence of various forms. This volume of original essays presents the state of the art in AI, surveying the foundations of the discipline, major theories of mental architecture, the principal areas of research, and extensions of AI such as artificial life. The questions and problems about artificial intelligence (AI) that remain can be divided into those that are largely independent of particular approaches to AI, and those that are prompted by more specific ideas about artificially realizable cognitive architectures. Artificial intelligence, or AI, is a cross-disciplinary approach to understanding, modeling, and creating intelligence of various forms. The chapter shows that questions about representations and their use play an important role in many challenges to AI. It briefly describes some of its representative scientific achievements. Find out more about sending content to . It is a critical branch of cognitive science, and its influence is increasingly being felt in other areas, including the humanities. He is the author of some 200 publications, including Anthropic Bias (2002), Global Catastrophic Risks (ed., 2008), and Human Enhancement It gives a brief review of major paradigms of learning in neural networks. The major strengths of GOFAI are its abilities to model hierarchy and sequential order, to allow for precision in problem solving, and to represent specific propositional contents. 2019. This chapter concerns the symbolic artificial intelligence (AI). Control of classical industrial robots is often based on solutions to equations describing the inverse-kinematics problem. An industrial robot's working environment is often carefully designed so that intricate sensory feedback is unnecessary; the robot performs its repetitive tasks in an accurate, efficient, but essentially unintelligent way. Broadly, statistical methods imply the use of only numerical, quantitatively based, methods for NLP/CL, rather than methods based on representations, whether those are assigned by humans or by computers. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. It considers a range of systems embodying natural language processing (NLP)/computational linguistics (CL) aspects since the early seventies, and divides them by their relationships to linguistic systems and in relation to concepts normally taken as central to AI, namely logic, knowledge, and semantics. Hybrid models, such as CLARION, have been used to address a wide variety of issues in cognitive science and artificial intelligence, including human learning, reasoning, problem solving, creativity, motivational dynamics, metacognitive processes, and above all, human consciousness. Artificial intelligence, or AI, is a cross-disciplinary approach to understanding, modeling, and creating intelligence of various forms. One also has moral reasons to treat them in certain ways, and to refrain from treating them in certain other ways. This chapter traces some of the history of the individual intellectual threads of situated activity, embodiment, and dynamics that underlie the situated, embodied, dynamical (SED) approach. please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. In contrast to connectionist implementationism, hybrid connectionist models may be considered a synthesis of connectionist models and traditional symbolic models. Chatterjee, Sheshadri The chapter looks at approaches to autonomous decision making developed over the past fifty years. With a focus on theory rather than technical and applied issues, the volume will be valuable not only to people working in AI, but also to those in other disciplines wanting an authoritative and up-to-date introduction to the field. Emotion research has become an active interdisciplinary subfield in AI, and machine consciousness is on the verge of establishing a research community that pursues the design of conscious machines. is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings Diakopoulos, Nicholas Copyright © 2020 IT eBooks Download All Rights Reserved. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. It is well suited to the binary, serial nature of the von Neumann digital computer. It examines in detail the main functionalities software systems would display in a social, agent-centered AI or, in other words, the principles of behavior of the new AI. Most contemporary philosophers would accept that the intelligence is provided by the material brains, and thus would be disinclined to challenge the possibility of artificially intelligent devices on the ground of their materiality. The chapter provides a concise account of the research interests in each of these subfields. The chapter discusses the philosophical implications of AI research on emotions and consciousness. Usage data cannot currently be displayed. This chapter focuses on visual perception, which is the dominant sense in humans and has been used from the first days of building artificial machines. and The Cambridge Handbook of Artificial Intelligence. Ledesma, Sergio and Xamán, J. Find out more about sending to your Kindle, 1 - History, motivations, and core themes, 6 - Dynamical systems and embedded cognition, 12 - Artificial emotions and machine consciousness, 15 - The ethics of artificial intelligence, Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139046855. It looks in particular at the following types of learning: supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and reinforcement learning. Broussard, Meredith Language and communication are considered as relevant to artificial intelligence. Research on the two topics of reasoning and decision making is often done in isolation, with different methods and different theoretical understandings for the two topics. It is a critical branch of cognitive science, and its influence is increasingly being felt in other areas, including the humanities. The chapter discusses the hybrid connectionist models, which incorporate both connectionist and symbolic processing methods. Then enter the ‘name’ part Much research on the role of emotions in artificial agents has been motivated by an analysis of possible functional roles of emotions in natural systems. To send content items to your account, A different set of ethical issues arises when one can contemplate the possibility that some future AI systems might be candidates for having moral status. and The chapter summarizes the work structured into four key topics: object recognition and categorization, tracking and visual servoing, understanding human behavior, and contextual scene understanding. It is a critical branch of cognitive science, and its influence is increasingly being felt in other areas, including the humanities. Research into artificial intelligence is thriving as never before, and promises continuing contributions, both practical to engineering and theoretical to science. Nof, Shimon Y. This chapter reviews briefly the history of connectionist models, identifying major ideas and major areas of applications. The first intellectual thread making up the SED approach is situated activity. Book summary views reflect the number of visits to the book and chapter landing pages. You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches". Connectionist devices are characterized by their rule for finding a set of connection weights that will yield patterns on their output units that are appropriate to each pattern on their input units. Some challenges of machine ethics are much like many other challenges involved in designing machines. Work on emotions in AI can be roughly divided into two strands (with a small overlap): communicative aspects and architectural aspects. Corrêa, Nicholas Kluge Alfaro-Ayala, J. This chapter surveys some of the ethical challenges that may arise as one can create artificial intelligences (AI) of various kinds and degrees. Linguists are not the only scientists wishing to test theories of language functioning: so do psychologists and neurophysiologists. It reviews the philosophical perspectives of two pioneers in AI and philosophy of mind, Alan Turing and Hilary Putnam, respectively. Superintelligence may be achievable by increasing processing speed. Flourishing recent trends include soft computing, AI for data mining, agent-based AI, cognitive computing (including developmental robotics and artificial general intelligence), and the application of AI in cognitive science. Much work in artificial intelligence (AI) has built on concepts and theories developed by philosophers and logicians. Guzman, Andrea L. It is a critical branch of cognitive science, and its influence is increasingly being felt in other areas, including the humanities. Dynamical systems theory (DST) views cognition as depending on a continuous interaction of a cognitive agent with its surroundings.

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