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Chapter 8, Explosions and Spirals. | Journal of Mammalogy | Oxford Academic", "Baculum length and copulatory behaviour in carnivores and pinnipeds (Grand Order Ferae)", "Notes on the breeding ecology and behavior of Japanese martens on Tsushima Islands, Japan", "Baculum length and copulatory behavior in primates", "Copulation behaviour in mammals: evidence that sperm competition is widespread", "The snail's love-dart delivers mucus to increase paternity", "Fighting to mate: flatworm penis fencing", "Reproductive and genetic evidence for a reticulate evolutionary theory of mass spawning corals", "Sexual Appetite and Animal behaviour – Sex and the single spider", Two Splits Between Human and Chimp Lines Suggested, "An autosomal analysis gives no genetic evidence for complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees", "Kin discrimination and female mate choice in the naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber", "The genetic basis of inbreeding avoidance in house mice", "Odour-based kin discrimination in the cooperatively breeding meerkat", "Dispersal as a means of inbreeding avoidance in a wild bird population", "Kin recognition and incest avoidance in toads". [166] Among those matings that do involve inbreeding the number of weaned juveniles in litters is significantly smaller than that from non-inbred litters indicating inbreeding depression. This behaviour is an evolutionarily stable strategy for reproduction, because it is favoured by natural selection just like the "standard" strategy of large males. [citation needed], It is rare to find true parthenogenesis in fishes, where females produce female offspring with no input from males. Sunderland, Mass. Bisexual behaviour was widespread and considered "both a great surprise and a shock", with big-bellied seahorses of both sexes not showing partner preference. The males are willing to work to support himself, his mate, and his offspring in order for survival; however, unlike the emperor penguin, the hornbills do not find new partners each season. 3–25, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [160] Over time, inbreeding depression may lead to the evolution of inbreeding avoidance behaviour. This is the case with most primates (who are primarily tropical and subtropical animals). For instance, with many species of bear, the female will often drive a male off soon after mating, and will later guard her cubs from him. Furthermore, the oxytocin levels of the couples correlate positively; when the oxytocin secretion of one increases the other one also increases. In species where the young are particularly vulnerable and may benefit from protection by both parents, monogamy may be an optimal strategy. The male may not be related to all of the offspring of his main mate, but some offspring are being raised in other broods by other males and females, thereby offsetting any limitation of monogamy. [64], Alternative male strategies which allow small males to engage in cuckoldry can develop in species such as fish where spawning is dominated by large and aggressive males. One possible explanation is that modern humans emerged from a hybrid of human and chimp populations. Wrasses exhibit three different mating systems: polygynous, lek-like, and promiscuous mating systems. For instance, the clitoris acts in the same way as with women, and scientific studies have shown that the success of reproduction is improved by stimulation of clitoris on (among other species) cows and mares in connection with insemination, because it improves the transportation of the sperm due to contractions of the inner genitalia. Monogamous is a phenomenon where a single male mates with a single female. "[17] Patricia Adair Gowaty has estimated that, out of 180 different species of socially monogamous songbirds, only 10% are sexually monogamous.[18]. When they find a female they bite into her skin, releasing an enzyme that digests the skin of their mouth and her body and fusing the pair down to the blood-vessel level. Anisogamy is a form of sexual reproduction which involves the fusion of two unequally-sized gametes. [158] A 2012 study questioned this explanation, concluding that "there is no strong reason to involve complicated factors in explaining the autosomal data". A sneak spawner is a male that rushes in to join the spawning rush of a spawning pair. The introduction of anisogamy has caused males and females to tend to have different optimal mating strategies. [4]:162, Parthenogenesis has been recorded in 70 vertebrate species[85] including hammerhead sharks,[86] blacktip sharks,[87] amphibians[88][89] and crayfish. These studies raise the possibility that Australopithecus had a polygamous mating system. In contrast, polygamous mating involves more than one female in the mating system. [citation needed] The moderate amounts of sexual non-monogamy in humans may result in a low to moderate amount of sperm competition. [139][140] In most deer species, a copulatory jump also occurs. [15][17][24] Because of this reduction in competition in some instances the regulation of certain morphological characteristics may be lowered. In some species, notably those with harem-like structures, only one of a few males in a group of females will mate. [24] As soon as sperm and egg are the predominant mating types there is an increase in the need for the male gametes. The monogamous behavior allows the male to have a mate consistently, without having to waste energy searching for other females. Freeman and Company. This hormone is released when a male mates and cares for young. interspecific sexuality, sexual arousal from objects or places, sex with dead animals, homosexual sexual behaviour, and bisexual sexual behaviour). The mating system of prairie voles is monogamous; after mating, they form a lifelong bond. Monogamy is defined as a pair bond between two adult animals of the same species – typically of the opposite sex. Early hominid sexual dimorphism and implications for mating systems and social behavior", "Sexual selection and the comparative anatomy of reproduction in monkeys, apes, and human beings", Promiscuity: an evolutionary history of sperm competition, "Animal Attraction: The Many Forms of Monogamy in the Animal Kingdom | NSF - National Science Foundation", "Social but not genetic monogamy is associated with greater breeding success in prairie voles", "Correlates of genetic monogamy in socially monogamous mammals: Insights from Azara's owl monkeys", "Canid reproductive biology: an integration of proximate mechanisms and ultimate causes", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Monogamy_in_animals&oldid=988936680, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing expert attention with no reason or talk parameter, Articles needing expert attention from May 2008, Sexology and sexuality articles needing expert attention, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2010, Articles lacking reliable references from April 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Recent studies using new methods of measurement suggest. Monogamous pairing in animals refers to the natural history of mating systems in which species pair bond to raise offspring. [126], Male bottlenose dolphins have been observed working in pairs to follow or restrict the movement of a female for weeks at a time, waiting for her to become sexually receptive. Female and male sexual behaviour differ in many species. One organism inseminates the other. But, in terms of social concerns, monogamous mating systems are favoured. The sperm is absorbed through pores in the skin, causing fertilisation. [134][135] Some camelids mate in a lying-down position. Other factors may also contribute to the evolution of social monogamy.

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