Tables and graphs of the photon mass attenuation coefficient μ/ρ and the mass energy-absorption coefficient μen/ρ are presented for all of the elements Z = 1 to 92, and for 48 compounds and mixtures of radiological interest. The values in the FFAST dataset have been calculated by different methods and may produce different results. Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317, W.S.C. Paul Reuss, Neutron Physics. The mass attenuation coefficient is defined as the ratio of the linear attenuation coefficient and absorber density (μ/ρ). The average atomic weight or average atomic mass is the ratio of the molecular weight of the sample divided by the total number of the atoms of all types presented in the compound. The values of the mass attenuation coefficients can be used to determine the total molecular cross section, , by the following relation [13]: The information contained in this website is for general information purposes only. The attenuation of gamma radiation can be then described by the following equation: I=I0.e- (μ/ρ).ρl, where ρ is the material density, (μ/ρ) is the mass attenuation coefficient and ρ.l is the mass thickness. For the "mass attenuation coefficient", see Mass attenuation coefficient. Glasstone, Sesonske. Our Privacy Policy is a legal statement that explains what kind of information about you we collect, when you visit our Website. The present experimental results are in accordance with the theoretical results. © 1989, 1990, 1996 copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the United States of America. Such effects have been observed by earlier investigators [33–38]. It was found that the values of μ/ρ, Zeff and Neff depend on the photon energy and increase with increasing iodine concentration in the composition of CAs. In this case, we have concluded that these deviations may not be directly explained by the number of the atoms increasing or decreasing in a compound. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Periodic Table, Copyright 2020 Periodic Table | All Rights Reserved |. This program which is based on the DOS-based compilation XCom [11] provides the total mass attenuation coefficient and the total attenuation cross-section data for about 100 elements as well as partial cross sections for incoherent and coherent scattering, photoelectric absorption, and pair production at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV [12]. NIST Standard Reference Database 126 | Customer Support | Online: May 1996  | Last update: July 2004, Webmaster | Contact Us | Our Other Offices, Created September 17, 2009, Updated December 11, 2019, Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP), Calibrations Customer Survey (external link), Medical-Indust. The effective electron number or electron density, (number of electrons per units mass), can be derived from [14–17] The powder samples have been compressed into pellets for 10 s at 15 ton by using a manual hydraulic press. A lock ( LockA locked padlock The mass attenuation coefficient is defined as the ratio of the linear attenuation coefficient and absorber density (μ/ρ). The linear attenuation coefficient for all materials decreases with the energy of the X-rays. A large generally corresponds to inorganic compounds and metals, while a small is an indicator of the organic substances [23]. The effective atomic number for gamma ray interactions in materials composed of various elements cannot be expressed by a single number and for each of the partial processes the number has to be weighted differently [22]. Gamma activity to dose rate (with/without shield), What is Linear Attenuation Coefficient - Definition, What is Mass Attenuation Coefficient - Definition, What is Mass and Charge of Electron - Definition, What is Discovery of X-Rays – Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen – Definition, What is Transient Equilibrium – Radioactive Equilibrium – Definition. Such effects have been observed by earlier investigators [33, 34, 39, 40]. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. When characterizing an absorbing material, we can use sometimes the mass attenuation coefficient. The mass attenuation coefficients for compounds of biomedically important some elements (Na, Mg, Al, Ca, and Fe) have been measured by using an extremely narrow collimated-beam transmission method in the energy 59.5 keV. Our Website follows all legal requirements to protect your privacy. We have not confirmed that when the number of atoms in a compound increases, the significant differences between experimental and theoretical values are observed for these compounds. Unable to process the form. It is important for compounds that the chemical environmental effect and molecular bonding are neglected by mixture rule. The materials listed in the table are air, water and a different elements from carbon (Z=6) through to lead (Z=82) and their linear attenuation coefficients are given for two X-ray energies. {"url":"/signup-modal-props.json?lang=us\u0026email="}. It consists of a 3.7 × 109 Bq (100 mCi) 241Am point source, which essentially emits monoenergetic (59.5 keV) γ-rays. C. T. Chantler, K. Olsen, R. A. Dragoset et al., S. R. Manohara, S. M. Hanagodimath, K. S. Thind, and L. Gerward, “The effective atomic number revisited in the light of modern photon-interaction cross-section databases,”, S. G. Prasad, K. Parthasaradhi, and W. D. Bloomer, “Effective atomic numbers for photoabsorption in alloys in the energy region of absorption edges,”, G. J. Hine, “The effective atomic numbers of materials for various gamma ray interactions,”, T. Kiran Kumar, S. Venkataratnam, and K. Venkata Reddy, “Effective atomic number studies in clay minerals for total photon interaction in the energy region 10 keV-10 MeV,”, H. Baltaş and U. Çevik, “Determination of the effective atomic numbers and electron densities for YBaCuO superconductor in the range 59.5–136 keV,”, Shivaramu, “Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption and photon attenuation of tissues from human organs,”, G. Kaur, K. Singh, B. S. Lark, and H. S. Sahota, “Photon interaction studies in solutions of some alkali metal chlorides - I,”, K. Siddappa, N. G. Nayak, K. M. Balakrishna, and N. Lingappa, “Experimental effective atomic numbers for the photoelectric process in some alloys at 84 and 145 keV,”, K. Singh, H. Singh, V. Sharma et al., “Gamma-ray attenuation coefficients in bismuth borate glasses,”, G. S. Bhandal and K. Singh, “Total and partial mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic number studies in different solid state nuclear track detectors,”, V. Ramprasath, “Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption and energy dependence of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds,”, B. S. Sidhu, A. S. Dhaliwal, K. S. Mann, and K. S. Kahlon, “Study of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron densities for some low Z compounds of dosimetry interest at 59.54 keV incident photon energy,”, N. Chanthima and J. Kaewkhao, “Calculation of mass attenuation coefficient and related parameters Of BaO-SiO, J. L. Glover, C. T. Chantler, Z. Barnea, N. A. Rae, and C. Q. Tran, “Measurement of the X-ray mass-attenuation coefficients of gold, derived quantities between 14 keV and 21 keV and determination of the bond lengths of gold,”, O. İçelli, S. Erzeneoğlu, and R. Boncukçuoğlu, “Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients of some boron compounds and the trommel sieve waste in the energy range 15.746–40.930 keV,”, U. Turgut, O. Simşek, E. Büyükkasap, and M. Ertuğrul, “X-ray attenuation coefficients at different energies and the validity of the mixture rule for compounds around the absorption edge,”, B. R. Kerur, S. R. Thontadarya, and B. Hanumaiah, “A study on the range of non-validity of the Bragg's additivity law for compounds at photon energies below 10 keV,”, B. R. Kerur, S. R. Thontadarya, and B. Hanumaiah, “X-ray attenuation coefficients at 6.46 keV and the validity of the mixture rule for compounds,”, A. T. L. Tan, V. Lakshminarayana, I. S. Giles, and A. Rajaratnam, “Photon cross-section measurements at low energies in some bromides,”, V. Lakshminarayana, A. T. L. Tan, I. S. Giles, and A. Rajaratnam, “Gamma cross-sections close to the absorption edge in some bromides,”, O. İçelli and S. Erzeneoğlu, “The mass attenuation coeffcients in some vanadium and nickel compounds,”, Ö. Sögüt, S. Seven, E. Baydas, E. Büyükkasap, and A. Küçükönder, “Chemical effects on K.

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