Exotic Journeys: A Tourist's Guide to Philosophy, © Copyright 1986, 2015, 2020 by Ron Yezzi. The last extreme of popular liberty is when the slave bought with money, whether male or female, is just as free as his or her purchaser; nor must I forget to tell of the liberty and equality of the two sexes in relation to each other. The relationship between politics and virtue received maximum treatment in the hands of Greek philosophers and specially Plato and Aristotle. According to Plato, a virtuous and moral state is one that gives utmost importance to justice. At the root of regard and affection in family life is the possessiveness associated with someone's being "my" father, "my" mother, "my" brother, or "my" sister. Broadly speaking, Aristotle lists three true forms: (1) Monarchy, or rule by one best person; (2) Aristocracy, or rule by the few best persons; and (3) Polity, or rule by the many with the few best persons holding the highest offices. It should not be taken as an actual historical account of what has happened, since he never claims that the ideal state ever existed in the first place. Powered by WordPress. He is much more concerned with preserving political stability than causing revolutions. Voluntary transactions include sales, loans, puchases, deposits of money or securities, rentals, and hiring. It is most likely to have the effect of making those faring well in a society complacent and unconcerned. Are both senses legitimate interpretations of what we mean by "justice"? On his view, Plato errs in assuming that the natural love for one's own family can be transferred to all fellow-citizens. A Possible Reply: Plato does not ignore the individual. Talking about the relationship between attainment of virtue and the role of the state Aristotle has drawn our attention to a very practical issue. With a description of the various possible states, we are then able to make comparisons to determine when individuals and their lives are most ideal, when a society is most just, and whether people live freely and equally. Plato' proposal received a thoroughly unfavorable review from Aristotle, who rejected it as being quite impractical. Morrow says “For Aristotle, the state comprises a cooperative order through which its members practice virtue and thus enjoy good life.”. By practicing virtue man can lead a good life. Their position is not opposed to the needs and interests of individuals; the crucial question with respect to human rights, however, is whether or not they truly serve those needs and interests. A well-functioning society requires superior persons in the superior positions; or, put differently, it requires persons contributing according to their talents and interests. How desirable is the communal lifestyle Plato advocates for the auxiliaries and rulers? Politics is primarily concerned with the political affairs and administrative system of the state. Neither is convinced that democracy brings the wisest, most virtuous persons to political power; and neither is willing to extol freedom as a superior virtue, if it entails a loss of order and self-discipline. Consider whether or not your society today contains persons whose dominant psychic agency, concept of happiness, and personal qualities identify them as philosopher-ruler types, timocratic persons, oligarchs, democrats, or tyrannical persons. This possessiveness associated with what is "mine" becomes meaningless when, as in Plato's ideal state, it is transferred to such large numbers of people. (In other works, for example, The Laws, Plato takes a more readily practical approach to describing the state than he does in The Republic.) “Is there, then, some sphere apart from these , or a house apart from bricks?” (Metaphysics p. 291). . Aristotle says that “the form […] does not come to be and there is no coming to be of it” (Metaphysics p. 290). Plato thought that the state must pursue virtue and morality. To what extent, if any, is he correct'? But from his analysis it is quite manifest that the state cannot impose virtue and morality upon its citizen. Rejection of An Eye for An Eye, A Tooth for A Tooth, Moderation, Compromise, and Accommodation, Controversies: Some Objections and Possible Replies. For example, they show greater preference and concern for family members than for others. That is, a state must make all efforts to achieve justice for its citizens. The representations of these things on Earth, according to Plato, are just weak reflections of the perfect forms in the intelligible world. Every now and then he takes part in politics, leaping to his feet to say or do whatever comes into his head. Plato and Aristotle differ on their approach to the role of literature in the society. If we go through the ’The Republic’ we shall find that Plato gave maximum importance to the miserable-and corrupt condition of the polis. When he is told that some pleasures should be sought and valued as arising from desires of a higher order, others chastised and enslaved because the desires are base, he will shut the gates of the citadel against the messengers of truth, shaking his head and declaring that one appetite is good as another and all must have their equal rights. Although Aristotle grants the need to alter the laws at times, he advocates caution because too frequent changes in the laws lower people's respect and obedience. 6.113 Why are persons in a democracy not really free, according to Plato'? Whereas Aristotle is not nearly as interested in erotic love (erôs) as he is in friendship (philia), for Plato the best kind of friendship is that which lovers can have for each other. But the state will create a congenial atmosphere in which people will pursue virtue. After the virtue, unity, and harmony of the rulers and other classes of the ideal state, there is a degeneration to timocracy, then to oligarchy, to democracy, and finally to tyranny. He is most concerned with laying out what should be done under the most favorable conditions applicable to a situation, as a way of establishing a norm to he striven for. For example, the achievement of remedial justice requires a just judge; yet Aristotle never states in detail how society should protect itself from corrupt judges; rather he lays out a norm for distributive justice with the presumption that departures from the norm will create difficulties in a society. It means that Aristotle was quite democratic minded and he had no intention to brush everyone’s shoes with the same colour. It is clear however that they oppose any exaggerated sense of individualism likely to thwart the common purposes of society as a whole, because they think that a society organized to serve the common interest is necessary for individual self-realization.

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