These notes enable the parents to find and feed their young. Grossman, M., J. Hamlet. Another possible cause of the decline is apparent predation by cattle. BioKIDS is sponsored in part by the Interagency Education Research Initiative. ("Eastern Meadowlark", 1992; "Birdnature.com", 2002; Campbell, 1973; Lanyon, 1995), Sturnella magna is found in the eastern United States, as well as parts of the southwest U.S. and Central America. Geographic Variation. Juvenile eastern meadowlarks have masked black areas and the white areas are buffish. (On-line). (Francq, 1972; Lanyon, 1995), Male S. magna establish their territories in March, and defend their territories throughout the breeding season. (On-line). Eastern meadowlarks are social, forming loose flocks during the fall and winter. Kansas: Kansas State Teachers College. The nest consists of coarse grasses, lined with finer grasses and is constructed on the ground, typically in a shallow depression. Bill-tilting and tail- and wing-flashing are used in territorial disputes, as is expansion posturing. Washington D. C.: American Ornithologists' Union. (Grossman and Hamlet, 1964; Lanyon, 1995), Eastern meadowlarks are prey for larger predators and they prey on a variety of insects, including grubs and caterpillars, which could damage the surrounding vegetation. Photos: © 2006 Patricia Velte. Both sexes use the chatter call to indicate excitement such as the presence of a predator or intruder. The sweet, lazy whistles of Eastern Meadowlarks waft over summer grasslands and farms in eastern North America. Eastern Meadowlark (juvenile) Sturnella magna. Histological study of host-parasite relations between meadowlarks (Sturnella) and Microtetrameres Sturnellae (Nematoda: Tetrameridae). 2003. ("Eastern Meadowlark", 1992; "Behavior", 2005; Elliott and Read, 1998; Lanyon, 1995), Posturing and aerial chases are used to attract and pursue possible mates. at http://www.birdnature.com/meadowlark.html. Jump-flights are used to ward off males that are intruding on another male’s territory. Eastern Meadowlark nests and the area immediately around the nest (i.e., 10 m) are highly sensitive features supporting the species’ reproduction life cycle and have the lowest tolerance to alteration. Sturnella magna have a variety of vocal communications. Additionally, the male is typically silent during the aerial chase. Nack, J., C. Ribic. Even the brown and buff streaking on much of the rest of the bird is less “contrasty” than those of the adult. ("Eastern Meadowlark", 1992; "Behavior", 2005; Elliott and Read, 1998; Lanyon, 1995), Eastern meadowlarks walk and run on the ground while foraging for food, they also forage by probing beneath the soil. Birds of Prey of the World. Males are slightly larger than females, from 21 to 25 cm in length, females are from 19 to 23 cm. All rights reserved. 2002. The female typically initiates the chase, although sometimes the chase includes two females and one male. The female receptive posture consists of the female elevating its bill and tail, holding its wings slightly drooped, and quivering, sometimes the female also chatters. An eastern meadowlark photographed at Kissimmee Prairie Preserve State Park in Okeechobee, ... Juvenile: similar to winter adult, but paler yellow below and breast V streaked. Stretching, specifically of the legs and wings, usually follows preening. The summer breeding range includes parts of southern Canada. juvenile eastern meadowlark (Campbell, 1973; Lanyon, 1995), Sturnella species eat kernels of sprouting grain, which can destroy portions of newly planted crops. Forages for insects such as grasshoppers and caterpillars or seeds by probing ground with their shear-shaped bill. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Graduate College. In the courtship period, female S. magna use the female song, during early morning preening. Afterwards the female remains in a semi-receptive position and flutters and shakes its plumage, chatters several times, then vigorously preens itself. 2005. Return to Pat's Backyard BirdCam (On-line). Get Instant ID help for 650+ North American birds. The Cornell Lab will send you updates about birds, birding, and opportunities to help bird conservation. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Vol. Only males use the primary song, which sounds like seee-yeee, seee-yer. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. A familiar bird, known by the black "V" on its chest when it sings from a fencepost, or by the flash of white tail feathers when it flushes from the grass. (On-line). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Some of these birds may migrate over 1,000 km to their winter range. It is a partnership of the University of Michigan School of Education, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, and the Detroit Public Schools. The sweet, lazy whistles of Eastern Meadowlarks waft over summer grasslands and farms in eastern North America. They nest on the ground and sing from exposed perches such as treetops, fenceposts, and utility lines. Eastern meadowlark eggs are white, speckled with reddish-brown. Male eastern meadowlarks rarely engage in body contact and fighting when defending their territories, however, when it does occur it can be quite severe. The whistle indicates intense excitement in males or females, such as the presence of a predator, just before a flight song, or immediately after an aerial chase or copulation.

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