Creighton L. Rev. The challenges and issues of industrial agriculture for society, for the sector, and for animal rights, include the costs and benefits of both current practices and proposed changes to those practices. #1 Permaculture Permaculture is a design system that applies principles that are found in nature to the development of human settlements, allowing humanity to live in harmony with the natural world. [17] This degradation leads to poor pasture soils with decreased fertility and water availability and increased rates of erosion, compaction, and acidification. This intensive system yields equivalent farmer profits (partly from increased livestock forage) while building new topsoil and sequestering up to 33 tons of CO2/ha/year.[49][50]. Some intensive farms can use sustainable methods, although this may necessitate higher inputs of labor or lower yields. A related technique is to plant multi-species cover crops between commercial crops. Examples of intensive agriculture. There are also challenges to farmers relying on farming equipment optimized for monoculture, often resulting in increased labor inputs. Intensive agriculture , firstly, is one that aims to increase production levels to the maximum , through the employment of chemical fertilizers and technology, and usually an extension of limited territory, as part of the optimization of the possible space. This in turn contributed to unprecedented population growth, freeing up a significant percentage of the workforce, and thereby helped enable the Industrial Revolution. Intensive farming not only involves horticulture, but also livestock farming. Intensive farming involves producing lots within a small area. Crop rotation can also improve soil structure and fertility by alternating deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plants. There are different types of agriculture production systems that includes extensive farming and intensive farming. Intensive farming involves production of high yield crops in a small area with use of lot of fertilizers and pesticides. Animal rights and animal welfare activists have charged that intensive animal rearing is cruel to animals. Their life span is reduced considerably due to the poor living conditions in which these animals are kept. These technologies included "miracle seeds", pesticides, irrigation, and synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. Agriculture faces in modern times  great challenges in terms of ecology, sustainability, and quantity of production, compared to a human population that continues to grow year after year. With the increased productivity of rotational systems, the animals may need less supplemental feed than in continuous grazing systems. The United States Environmental Protection Agency identified certain animal feeding operations, along with many other types of industry, as "point source" groundwater polluters. No featured entries match the criteria. [17][21] ICLF systems yield beef cattle productivity up to ten times that of degraded pastures, additional crop production from maize, sorghum, and soybean harvests, and greatly reduced greenhouse gas balances due to forest carbon sequestration. Farmers can therefore increase stocking rates.[4][28]. Intensive livestock farming or "factory farming", is the process of raising livestock in confinement at high stocking density. It also includes production of more crops from a smaller land area. GAVIN THOMAS Solutions include: In agriculture, a terrace is a leveled section of a hilly cultivated area, designed as a method of soil conservation to slow or prevent the rapid surface runoff of irrigation water. These have an increased nitrogen-absorbing potential compared to other varieties. And from these considerations come the opposite concepts of intensive agriculture and extensive agriculture. The animals in turn obtain the natural nutritional requirements from grazing, eliminating the need for supplemental feed sources. Finally, intensive agriculture requires greater investments in energy (electricity), resources (water) and technology, while extensive investment depends on natural hydrological cycles. Norin 10 wheat, a variety developed by Orville Vogel from Japanese dwarf wheat varieties, was instrumental in developing wheat cultivars. Jo-Anne McArthur / We Animals. Industrial hog farms can be some of the most heartbreaking, yet also typical, examples of the lengths intensive agriculture will go to produce high yields with minimal investment. Historians cited enclosure, mechanization, four-field crop rotation, and selective breeding as the most important innovations. Intensive aquaculture takes place on land using tanks, ponds, or other controlled systems, or in the ocean, using cages.[48]. The Green Revolution transformed farming in many developing countries. We hope you enjoy this website. Lorecentral.org is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to amazon.com, 10 Examples of Intensive and Extensive Agriculture, Examples of Interspecific relationships and their types, The characteristics of sustainable development, Differences between evergreen plants and deciduous plants. [6] The earliest rice cultivation there may have used dry-fields instead of paddies. 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