2008 revisions) (v.1) 2009). eBird version 1.54 (v.1) This result, produced from six model algorithms, is similar to that using only the maximum entropy model (Donald et al. Huntley et al. IOC World Bird Names, version 3.2 (v.1) Parrots are intelligent, charismatic and beautiful, but sensitive and demanding – as pets they are a BIG responsibility! Fry et al. IOC World Bird Names, version 2.11 (v.1) 2012). Howard and Moore 3rd edition (incl. eBird version 1.53 (v.1) Birdlife checklist version 02 (v.1) 2015). none eBird version 1.52 (v.1) First, between 2012 and 2015, we conducted 266 walked transects of 1 km within and outside the known range of the Bush‐crow (Donald et al. The standardized maximum temperature and dry season precipitation scores were much higher for the Bush‐crow than for the two starlings, for which the wet season precipitation score was higher (Fig. Observations on the biology of the Ethiopian Bush Crow, Interspecific competition and the geographical distribution of Red and Arctic Foxes, Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas, Handbook of the Birds of the World, Volume 14, Potential impacts of climatic change on southern African birds of fynbos and grassland biodiversity hotspots, A Climatic Atlas of European Breeding Birds, Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Examining the behavioural costs of heat in a climatically range‐restricted arid zone bird; the case of the Ethiopian Bush‐crow Zavattariornis stresemanni (Masters thesis), Varied diet and opportunistic foraging in the Ethiopian Bush‐crow, Mechanistic niche modelling: combining physiological and spatial data to predict species’ ranges. We sought to elucidate the factors that limit the global distribution of the Ethiopian Bush‐crow by using several species distribution modelling procedures and a range of candidate bioclimate variables. 2015, 2017). Figure S6. Clements 6th edition (version 6.8 incl. Enter your login name or your email address and click on Send reminder to receive a reminder by email. An inability to cope with high temperatures without expending substantial energy and time on behavioural thermoregulation has been suggested as a range‐limiting characteristic in other species (Cunningham et al. Clements 1st edition (v.1) Figure S1. Stay up to date with all our latest park news, stories & events. However, our conclusions do not depend on direct comparisons between temperatures measured during the behavioural study with those from weather stations or satellites. They are omniverous, enjoying a wide range of foods including fruit, minced meat and, especially during the breeding season, insects including mealworms. Underhill–Zucchini models were fitted by using the NONLIN module of SYSTAT 5.01 (Wilkinson 1990) to identify the values of the mean, difference and standard deviation and, for the time of day models, the quadratic parameter q, at which the likelihood of the data was maximized. In the second study, foraging adults were approached to a distance of 5–10 m (at which none of the species showed signs of disturbance such as alarm calling or retreating from the observer) and one bird was selected at random and watched continuously through binoculars for as long as contact could be maintained (‘watches’). Group identity was modelled as a random effect, with a random effect of observation period nested within it, as the data were over‐dispersed. White‐crowned Starling Lamprotornis albicapillus and Superb Starling L. superbus occupy similar habitats to the Ethiopian Bush‐crow and all three frequently forage together. The body proportions of the Ethiopian Bush‐crow (body length 28 cm) resemble those of larger starlings, including White‐crowned and Superb (body lengths 25 and 18 cm, respectively: del Hoyo et al. 2015), with the temperature close to the ground being an average of 11.2 °C lower in the shade than in full sunlight in our study. S6). Lines show predicted values from the model. Therefore, we assessed the behavioural responses of the Bush‐crow to ambient temperature and the influence of climatic covariates on its distribution, and compared them with those of two ecologically similar, sympatric species of similar body proportions which are common throughout the small range of the Bush‐crow but whose ranges, while confined to eastern Africa, are far less geographically restricted, namely, the White‐crowned Starling Lamprotornis albicapillus and Superb Starling Lamprotornis superbus (ranges 1 060 000 and 3 030 000 km2, respectively: BirdLife International 2016). 2000 revisions) (v.1) A map of transect centres and centres of road segments with and without Bush‐crows is provided in Fig. 2014). 2009 revisions) (v.1) 2013a). The food intake rate of Bush‐crows declined with increasing temperature, whereas it increased with temperature in White‐crowned Starlings and was not significantly affected by temperature in Superb Starlings (Fig. We are grateful to a number of people who provided additional Bush‐crow records used in distribution modelling: Kai Gedeon, Till Töpfer, Claire Spottiswoode and Simon Busuttil; to Kai Gedeon, Mengistu Wondafrash, Marcus Rowcliffe, E.J. 2012) and nestling growth (Cunningham et al. Individual identity could not be used as a random factor because not all birds were colour‐marked. These results indicate that the limited geographical range of the Bush‐crow reflects an inability to cope with higher temperatures. Moving to the shade is a means of behavioural thermoregulation (Cunningham et al. IOC World Bird Names, version 5.3 (v.1) We used six model algorithms and a k‐fold partitioning cross‐validation procedure to assess model performance by the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Observations were dictated into a digital voice recorder and transcribed later. This was converted to a proportion of each watch spent panting. IOC World Bird Names, version 9.1 (v.1) Howard and Moore 2nd edition (v.1) 2015) and of behavioural mechanisms to avoid daily or seasonal periods of unfavourably high temperature (Kelly et al. Our results demonstrate that apparent adaptability (Gedeon 2006) and ecological generalism (Collar & Stuart 1985, Jones et al. corrigenda 2.1) (v.1) IOC World Bird Names, version 2.10 (v.1) However, the possibility that the species might be limited by ambient temperature arose after the range was found to be almost perfectly described by a climate envelope model based on mean annual temperature, temperature seasonality (standard deviation of weekly mean temperatures) and annual precipitation; mean annual temperature within the range was lower than that in neighbouring areas (Donald et al. Model selection was carried out by backwards stepwise selection, with the removal of each term tested using a likelihood‐ratio test. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. This is equivalent to modelling the number of items ingested per minute as the dependent variable. Can behaviour buffer the impacts of climate change on an arid‐zone bird? ? Groups sometimes split into smaller foraging units and came together again later, so identification of groups could not be based on group size alone. S4). IOC World Bird Names, version 8.2 (v.1) There are a few ways by which you can help the development of this page, such as joining the Flickr group for photos or providing translations of the site in addition languages. For the two starling However, Bush‐crows began to pant and moved to the shade at significantly lower temperatures than did either of the less temperature‐restricted starling species. Hence, the model for temperature had three parameters: (1) the mean temperature at which individual birds began to show some panting behaviour (Ppant > 0), (2) the difference between the temperature at which an individual began to show panting behaviour and that at which it pants throughout the watch (this difference is taken to be the same for all individuals) and (3) the standard deviation of the temperature at which individual birds began to show some panting behaviour.

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