Du Bois argued ...read more, Born of humble origins in New York State, Millard Fillmore (1800-1874) became a lawyer and won election to the U.S. House of Representatives for the first time in 1833. …was succeeded by Vice President Arthur.…, [Chester A.] Chester Arthur was the fifth child of a fervent abolitionist preacher who moved his family from one Baptist parish to the next throughout New York and Vermont. Arthur was the second vice president to become chief executive due to an assassination. Test your knowledge of U.S. presidents and first ladies with this in-depth quiz. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). His Baptist minister father, William Arthur, hailed from Ireland, and his mother, Malvina Stone Arthur, was from Vermont. Chester Alan Arthur was born on October 5, 1829, in Fairfield, Vermont. After exiting the White House in March 1885, Arthur returned to New York City to resume his legal career. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Key events in the life of Chester A. Arthur. Did you know? During this time, Arthur joined the Republican Party, which was established by anti-slavery activists in 1854. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. There, his health continued to deteriorate, and on November 18, 1886, he died at age 57 at his home.Following a funeral in Manhattan, the former president was buried beside his wife in the Arthur family plot in the Albany Rural Cemetery in Menands, New York. Additionally, the Pendleton Act allowed for the establishment of a bipartisan Civil Service Commission to enforce the law. Ellen Arthur (1837-80) was the wife of Chester A. Arthur, 21st president of the United States, though she never served as first lady because she died of pneumonia before her husband assumed office. Chester Arthur was one of five Presidents who was never elected — he took office after James Garfield's assassination and served nearly a full term. Attending Union College, Arthur showed far more interest in extracurricular activities and political demonstrations than in his studies. He later was removed from the job by President Rutherford Hayes (1822-1893) in an attempt to reform the spoils system. On the 36th ballot, James Garfield, a Civil War general and congressman from Ohio, was chosen as the compromise candidate. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. The problem was solved after he passed the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act which required people to pass tests before they could be appointed to a public job. Chester, or “Chet,” as he was known, attended Union College in Schenectady, New York. Chester Arthur (1829-1886), the 21st U.S. president, took office after the death of President James Garfield (1831-1881). Nixon stepped down in 1974, halfway through his second term, rather than face impeachment over his efforts to cover up illegal activities by members of his ...read more. Resuming his law practice in 1863, he became closely associated with Sen. Roscoe Conkling, the Republican boss of New York. Arthur was also involved in the so-called Lemmon slave case, in which the New York Supreme Court ruled in 1860 that slaves being transferred t… In 1859, Arthur married Ellen “Nell” Lewis Herndon (1837-1880), the Virginia-born daughter of a U.S. naval officer. Access hundreds of hours of historical video, commercial free, with HISTORY Vault. Arthur, in turn, gave government jobs to Conkling’s supporters, who contributed part of their salaries to the Republican Party. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Chester-A-Arthur, Maps of World - Biography of Chester Arthur the 21st President of US, United States Senate - Biography of Henry A. Wallace, The White House - Biography of Chester A. Arthur, Chester A. Arthur - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Chester A. Arthur - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), presidency of the United States of America, vice president of the United States of America, Charles James Folger (from November 14, 1881), Benjamin Harris Brewster (from January 3, 1882). The case helped lead to the desegregation of public transportation in New York City. The New York customhouse, which brought in the bulk of the nation’s tariff revenue, had long been conspicuous for flagrant use of the spoils system, by which Conkling’s political supporters were rewarded with government jobs. Two days later, in Washington, D.C., Arthur was given the oath of office by the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. In the early hours of September 20, Arthur was sworn in as president at his Manhattan brownstone at 123 Lexington Avenue by a New York state judge. He is the only president to date who served two nonconsecutive terms, and also the only Democratic president to win election during the period of Republican ...read more, Stephen A. Douglas (1813-1861) was a U.S. politician, leader of the Democratic Party, and orator who espoused the cause of popular sovereignty in relation to the issue of slavery in the territories before the American Civil War (1861-1865). With Conkling’s support, Arthur was able to resist Hayes for a time, but in July 1878 Hayes finally suspended him, and Arthur returned to the practice of law. Sometime around 1882, Arthur learned he was suffering from Bright’s disease, a serious kidney ailment. The landmark victory led to a New York law forbidding discrimination in public transportation.

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