The dead C. maculatus individuals were surface sterilized by 1% sodium hypochlorite and 70% ethyl alcohol. Plant powders’ for antifeedant activity tests are easy to prepare and apply and many plants have It is a cosmopolitan pest ranked as the principal post-harvest pest of cowpea in the tropics [5,6]. The daily mortality rates at different doses were corrected according to the Abbott formula when the mortality rate in the control exceeded 5% (Abbott 1925). The losses caused. in each twenty insects (10 males and 10 females) were introduced to allow for mating and oviposition. involved in the adoption process. In a test with the filter paper diffusion method (contact application), C. maxima leaf extract showed 100% mortality to S. oryzae and R. dominica within three days after treatment (DAT) at the rate of 8.5 mg/cm 2 , whereas, only 65% mortality was observed against T. castaneum at this dosage. This includes, the chain of activities linking farmers and, consumers, suppliers of goods and services. 2005, 2007; Sewify et al. level increases from 0.02g to 0.20g. Beans were dressed with different doses (0.04, 0.08, 0.12, 0.16, and 0.20g) of the extracts and the seed damage data were used to estimate the weevil perforation index (WPI). A The present chapter addresses information on the pesticide usage and their negative impacts on food safety leading to the development of integrated pest management (IPM). endstream endobj The dead adults were examined under a microscope to determine whether the cause of death was fungus, and mycosis rates were determined. materials are usually more effective than powders [19]. The mortality rate was recorded daily for 8 days. Both the extracts produced comparatively less toxicity to T. castaneum and C. sinensis within the same duration of time. (1987) Use of neem and other botanical materials for pest control by farmers in . The low cost and safety of botanical extract is gaining more importance in controlling cowpea IGRs can be applied as a spray to, grains, nuts or other foodstuffs during the, product. 1 and 2). production, there is still hunger and poverty, worth more than 2000–3000 crores of rupees, their processed products are susceptible to, account for the loss of about 25% of food, mites, insects and rodents. Some-, in the wetter parts of West Africa and Central, by qualitative losses affecting the mass of, the grain in store. Peasant farmers in northern Nigeria indigenously use various plants to protect cereals and legumes against 2018). kernels of rice (amounting to 30kg of rice). Compared to the control which has WPI of 50%, both extracts were found to be highly effective antifeedants against the cowpea weevil storage pest for the time allowed for the study. research paper on flavonoids and their related compounds have indicated that these compounds possessed antifeedant It is, not only the loss of weight but commercially. powder. 2014; Athanassiou et al. Of the many insects that, have adapted themselves to a diet of dried, vegetable material, a few are primary pests, of grain in that they are able to bore into, sound kernels. against insect and reduces the rate of resistance development. Post harvest loss reduction: A decade of activities: What consequences? major source of foreign earnings. The seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is an important tropical and subtropical pest of legumes distributed world‐wide. The two evaluated EPF in this study (M. anisopliae TR-106 and B. bassiana TR-217 isolates) showed a virulence against C. maculatus (causing up to 100 % mortality). It was observed that the two tested concentrations of the two isolates at both temperatures started to cause mortality in 4 days after application and mortality increased by the time (Figs. 2016). Lawrence and Khan (2002) reported that two different B. bassiana isolates were applied to cowpea seed beetle at different temperatures (20, 25, and 30°C) and the lowest LC50 and LT50 values were determined at 30 °C. Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu, eld studies suggest that, under traditional.

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